Arian Catholic Ecclesiastical Lore
Ecumenical & Ecclesiastical Law,
Folklore & Philosophy
description of Jesus’ suffering during the last hours of life
indicates that he was crucified on a stake rather than a cross.
some of the writings of the early church fathers confirms the use of
the very earliest depictions of Jesus’ crucifixion in Christian
art show him on a stake.
5:30 refers to “hanging him on a tree.” 1 Peter 2:24 says “He
himself bore our sins in his body on the tree.”
21:23 stated that a person hung on a tree would be cursed by God. This
verse was a major stumbling block that prevented many Jews from accepting
Jesus as Messiah.
to author Graydon F. Snyder:
“[Today’s] ... universal use of the sign of the cross makes more poignant the striking lack of crosses in early Christian remains, especially any specific reference to the event on Golgotha. Most scholars now agree that the cross as an artistic reference to the passion event cannot be found prior to the time of Constantine.”
The Cross and the Chi-Rho
The cross (+) was actually the symbol for the Roman Sun God: “Sol” (the arms representing the sun’s rays) and other pagan religions took it to represent the Earth, Air, Fire and Water. The cross didn’t begin to appear in Christianity until the mid-5th Century and is conspicuous by it absence in Christian art before this time; more references to the Chi-Rho cross began to appear in Christianity following Emperor Constantine’s vision of a cross that apparently inspired him to convert to Christianity, however Constantine continued to hold the title of “Pontifex Maximus” (chief priest of the classical pagan Roman Religion) and many take this to mean that he was not a Christian, though he had an interest in the politics of Christianity, which has led some scholars to the conclusion that the Chi Rho (known to the Romans as the Labarum) was not intended as a Christian symbol. In fact, Constantine was only baptized as a Christian (by Eusebius the Arian Bishop of Nicomedia and Patriarch of Constantinople) on his very deathbed, which suggests that he did put inclusive politics before any religious sentiment he might have harboured. The cross (+) and Chi-Rho (☧) are therefore Pagan Symbols, however Chi-Rho was also used by early Christians and has been found on early Christian Ossuaries, see below, and in engravings in the Catecombs of St Sebastian. The Chi Rho symbol (☧ = Unicode: U+2627) has multiple origins: In Roman Paganism it was known as the “Labarum” and was the monogram of “Chronos,” the god of time. The Chi Rho is also the origin of the tradition of abbreviating “Christ” in “Christian” or “Christmas” to “X” and “☧” i.e. “XP” = “ChR.” Note however that the alpha and the omega were added much later and were taken from the Greek Apocalypse of John (Revelation), see below.
The Crucifix depicting the crucifixion of Christ on the cross wasn’t adopted by the Roman Catholic Church until the latter part of the sixth century, and finally authorized by the Council of Constantinople (Council in Trullo) in 692 A.D. The Celtic Cross, featuring the Cross patterned with Celtic knot-work in front of a circle, is a very ancient symbol adopted by the Celts and dates back to the fourth century A.D., representing the sun and its rays from the Roman symbol for Sol and integrates Celtic artwork, usually in the form of knot-work patterns representing the fishing nets that played such an important role in their society; although from the Christian perspective it represents the cross on which Christ was crucified.
Strictly speaking the cross was not a symbol used by Christ, his Apostles or the early Church, and the use of the Crucifix (displaying the crucified body of Christ) is bordering on the idolatrous!
It is a common misconception that the Chi-Rho symbol was introduced by Emperor Constantine I in the 4th century; It’s use dates much further back than this time. The Apostles did use the Chi-Rho symbol, which the Roman Emperor Constantine claimed for himself in the fourth century adding the Alpha and Omega symbols, but which, along with the Chi (X) symbol by itself, has been discovered on early Christian Ossuaries dating back to before the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. such as St Peter’s Ossuary (discovered in Jerusalem in 1953, see article: St Peter’s Jerusalem tomb) and what is widely believed to be the Ossuary of Jesus himself (discovered in Talpiot in 1980, see http://www.jesusfamilytomb.com/). The Chi-Rho symbol is an anagram of the first two letters of Christ in Greek (ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ, Christos), the Chi [X] (our CH) and the Rho [P] (our R). These two letters written together stand for Christianity in the early Christian period. The reason why some Chi-Rho’s have a Greek letter alpha (A) on one side of the chi-rho and a Greek letter omega (looks like a W) on the other side is that in the Bible, Revelation 1:8, 21:6 and 22:13, it says: “I am the alpha and the omega, the beginning and the end” (because omega was the last letter of the Greek alphabet, the way Z is our last letter in English), which began to appear later from the time of Constantine I. There is interesting debate as to where and when this passage in Revelations originated because much of the New Testament Gospels and Apocalyptic texts, although written in Greek, were taken from oral tradition passed down from Aramaic and Hebrew speaking people! If we compare the Chi-Rho symbol with the Hebrew Star of David (Magen David) then we see that both symbols share the same six points! While using different symbolism it would make sense without being too obvious to continue the same basic underlying symbolic structure that has been handed down from David to his Messianic heir.
symbols used in early Christianity include the Anchor and the Fish. Ichthus (ikh-thoos) or ichthys is the Greek word simply meaning “fish”.
The Greek spelling for ichthus is: Iota, Chi, Theta, Upsilon, and Sigma or ΙΧΘΥΣ in Greek. The Greek ἰχθύς is an acronym of Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, Θεοῦ Υἱός, Σωτήρ; the English transliteration of the Greek is: “Iesous Christos, Theou Uios, Soter” and meaning: “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour.” This symbol was used primarily amongst Christians of the early church years (1st and 2nd century A.D.).
The Anchor was found in the first century cemetery of St. Domitilla, the second and third century epitaphs of the catacombs, and especially in the oldest parts of the cemeteries of Sts. Priscilla (about 70 examples in this cemetery alone), Domitilla, Calixtus, and the Coemetarium majus.
See Hebrews 6:19-20...
19 We have this as a sure and steadfast anchor of the soul, a hope that enters into the inner shrine behind the curtain, 20 where Jesus has gone as a forerunner on our behalf, having become a high priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.
The Revised Standard Version. 1971 (Heb 6:19). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
Because it is universally accepted as a symbol of Christianity; the Arian Catholic Church acknowledges the cross and Celtic cross as symbols of the Church because the cross and circle have appeared as symbols believed to be divine signs in antiquity (i.e. since the 5th century) and is reminiscent of the Cross on which many believe Christ was Crucified, although all the original evidence confirms that Christ was crucified on a stake! On the Celtic cross the circle represents the sanctity of the cross; hence the “Holy Cross”. Please note that Christ taught us to worship and pray to God in private and not through a cross or statue. The first and second Commandments are clear on this issue.
The use of the Crucifix is accepted as symbolism in Arian Catholicism and may be on display during services (although the Chi Rho will be more effective for Advanced Exorcisms due to its genuine origin), BUT must not be used as a focal point for worship or prayer. The Rosary has been used for thousands of years as prayer counters and a focus for prayer and is accepted in the Arian Catholic Church. The worship of idols and the making of idols for worship are strictly forbidden under the second commandment.
The Circle, Ring or Eye of God. Recent discoveries have shown that in addition to the “X” and “☧” symbols being used by early Christians, the “O” and “ ^ ” (chevron) symbols have also been found. There is speculation as to what these symbols represent, some say that the upright chevron (^) represents the symbol masculinity or the male gender i.e. the Son of God. The circle is arguably a symbol for eternity or a representation of the eye of God, although some believe that there is a link with the crown of thorns of the Messiah. Celtic Christians in Britain from the fifth century chose to combine a circle with a cross.
The Chi-Rho cross is however accepted as the official cross and symbol of the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church and is permitted for use in all aspects of Arian Catholicism. ☧
“There is no other commandment greater than these.” (Mark 12:31, NRSV): The Arian Catholic Church strictly follows the Decalogue, as written in Exodus 20:1-17 and Deuteronomy 5:6-21, as part of the Law of Moses which contains a total of 613 laws including the Ritual Decalogue in Exodus 34:10-26. Yeshua the Messiah taught us that not one word or Iota would pass from the Law until his return (Matthew 5:17-20) and of the Mosaic Laws the greatest of these commandments Yeshua explains “you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength,” the Cardinal Commandments, and “you shall love your neighbour as yourself,” the Human Commandments (Mark 12:28-34).
Roman Apostasy and mutilation of the Decalogue: It is important to follow the Holy Law as God commanded because to stray from His Commandments is to fall into Apostasy. It is shocking then to see how the Roman Catholic church has done just that by omitting the second commandment on idolatry altogether and dividing the tenth commandment on covetousness into two to make up the numbers.
The Broader Decalogue: Arian Catholic theologians recognise eleven separate and distinct Commandments in both the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy, although we acknowledge that there are references to the “Ten Commandments” (or “ten words” (Rotherham’s Emphasised Bible)) in Exodus 34:28 and Deuteronomy 4:13 & 10:4. Even the Jewish, Protestant and Roman churches cannot agree on which Commandments constitute the Decalogue. It is thought that the number ten was adhered to as the result of cultural affinity to the number ten (i.e. ten fingers). We have listed here and in more detail on our Commandments page the full list of the Commandments in the order that they appear in the Bible (both books of Exodus and Deuteronomy are from the King James’ Bible (Authorised Version)) and have indicated their Protestant and Roman Catholic Decalogue (Ten Commandments) orders for reference. As Yeshua taught us the Commandments are in two categories of Cardinal and Human Commands:-
Cardinal Commandments: The first four Commandments have regard to our relationship with God, “you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength” ...
1. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. [Protestant & Catholic #1]
2. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image...: Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them. [Protestant # 2 & Catholic: omitted]
3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. [Protestant # 3 & Catholic # 2]
4a. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. [Protestant # 4 & Catholic #3]
4b. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work. [Protestant # 4 continued & Catholic #3 continued]
Human Commandments: The last six Commandments have regard to our relationship with our fellow-men and women, “you shall love your neighbour as yourself” ...
5. Honour thy father and thy mother. [Protestant #5 & Catholic #4]
6. Thou shalt not kill. [Protestant #6 & Catholic #5]
7. Thou shalt not commit adultery. [Protestant #7 & Catholic #6]
8. Thou shall not steal. [Protestant #8 & Catholic #7]
9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. [Protestant #9 & Catholic #8]
10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s. [Protestant #10 & Catholic #9 & #10]
A study is given of the conflicting arrangement of the Ten Commandments as revealed by a comparison of the Protestant, Catholic and Hebrew versions. This reveals how the Catholic Tradition has played down the ban on worshipping graven images by merging the first three verses and has created an additional command by dividing the last Command into two in an apparent attempt to maintain the number of ten Commandments. Both Protestant and Catholic traditions have blindly held to ten Commandments irrespective of the fact that there are actually eleven written in the scriptures.
The Law of the Nazirite
The Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church encourages Christians to take a Nazirite vow at least once in their lives. Jesus himself is believed to have observed a Nazirite vow twice. The Law of the Nazirite can be found in the book of Numbers 6:1-20. This can be a good way of focussing one’s self to spend a particular period of closeness to God, to keep to a strict diet, to attain a level of fitness or for penance (Num. 6:21), and enables participants to follow an unusual devotion to God for a fixed period of time, after which they return to a normal way of life. This is usually for a period of six months or one year. The rules regarding the shaving of hair and the sacrificing of Lambs are now relaxed and this is now represented by a feast, the shaving of one's bear and the cutting of the hair (shaving optional). Those who follow a Religious lifestyle such as Oblates and Lay Oblates and those in Theological training sometimes find that they are called by God to take a Nazirite vow.
Not to be confused with Nazarene (one from Nazareth, see Matt. 2:23), the Nazirite was one who made a special vow to the Lord for a time of unusual devotion to God. The regulations of the Nazirite vows are found in Num. 6:1. Any man or woman could take a vow of separation to God. The vow was voluntary (Num. 6:2), had limited duration (Num. 6: 5, 8, 13, 20), and included three provisions: (1) abstinence from wine, strong drink, and the fruit of the vine; (2) not cutting the hair; and (3) no contact with the dead (Num. 6:3). A Nazirite who became unclean went through elaborate cleansing rituals (Num. 6:9).
1 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 2 “Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: When either a man or woman consecrates an offering to take the vow of a Nazirite, to separate himself to the Lord, 3 he shall separate himself from wine and similar drink; he shall drink neither vinegar made from wine nor vinegar made from similar drink; neither shall he drink any grape juice, nor eat fresh grapes or raisins. 4 All the days of his separation he shall eat nothing that is produced by the grapevine, from seed to skin.
5 All the days of the vow of his separation no razor shall come upon his head; until the days are fulfilled for which he separated himself to the Lord, he shall be holy. Then he shall let the locks of the hair of his head grow. 6 All the days that he separates himself to the Lord he shall not go near a dead body. 7 He shall not make himself unclean even for his father or his mother, for his brother or his sister, when they die, because his separation to God is on his head. 8 All the days of his separation he shall be holy to the Lord.
9 And if anyone dies very suddenly beside him, and he defiles his consecrated head, then he shall shave his head on the day of his cleansing; on the seventh day he shall shave it. 10 Then on the eighth day he shall bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons to the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of meeting; 11 and the priest shall offer one as a sin offering and the other as a burnt offering, and make atonement for him, because he sinned in regard to the corpse; and he shall sanctify his head that same day. 12 He shall consecrate to the Lord the days of his separation, and bring a male lamb in its first year as a trespass offering; but the former days shall be lost, because his separation was defiled.
13 Now this is the law of the Nazirite: When the days of his separation are fulfilled, he shall be brought to the door of the tabernacle of meeting. 14 And he shall present his offering to the Lord: one male lamb in its first year without blemish as a burnt offering, one ewe lamb in its first year without blemish as a sin offering, one ram without blemish as a peace offering, 15 a basket of unleavened bread, cakes of fine flour mixed with oil, unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and their grain offering with their drink offerings.
16 Then the priest shall bring them before the Lord and offer his sin offering and his burnt offering; 17 and he shall offer the ram as a sacrifice of a peace offering to the Lord, with the basket of unleavened bread; the priest shall also offer its grain offering and its drink offering. 18 Then the Nazirite shall shave his consecrated head at the door of the tabernacle of meeting, and shall take the hair from his consecrated head and put it on the fire which is under the sacrifice of the peace offering.
19 And the priest shall take the boiled shoulder of the ram, one unleavened cake from the basket, and one unleavened wafer, and put them upon the hands of the Nazirite after he has shaved his consecrated hair, 20 and the priest shall wave them as a wave offering before the Lord; they are holy for the priest, together with the breast of the wave offering and the thigh of the heave offering. After that the Nazirite may drink wine.
21 “This is the law of the Nazirite who vows to the Lord the offering for his separation, and besides that, whatever else his hand is able to provide; according to the vow which he takes, so he must do according to the law of his separation.”
The Biblical Noahide Laws
The Biblical Noahide Laws are taken from the Commandments given to Adam and Noah by God and which can be proved to have been a requirement of God at the time, which were intended for all mankind, found mostly in Genesis chapters 2, 9 and 20, and confirmed in the Pseudepigrapha: Book of Jubilees 7:20-28 and again by Saints Peter and James the Just (Patriarch of Jerusalem) in the Acts of the Apostles 15:1–31. Yet here only the following are referenced but do compliment the Decalogue:-
The Precepts of Noah found in Genesis chapters 9 and 20 * Doctrinal *
Respect all creatures.
Do not be cruel to animals, nor eat the limbs or drink the blood of a live animal (Gen 9:4).
Respect human life.
Do not unlawfully kill or commit suicide (Gen 9:5-6).
Respect the Family.
Do not commit immortal sexual acts (Gen 20:3). NB The context of this passage demonstrates that adultery and incest were already known to be sins and therefore were commanded to either Adam or Noah.
Laws of Noah attested by the Pseudepigrapha: Book of Jubilees 7:20-28
Cover the shame of their flesh.
Bless their Creator.
Honour father and mother.
Love their neighbour.
Guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity.
No Blood: For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth ... For whoso sheddeth man’s blood, and whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, shall all be destroyed from the earth.
NB The Book of Jubilees was not considered canonical for the Hebrew bible nor deuterocanonical. While the Jubilean list is biblical, it cannot be identified as Noahide! This was probably one of the sources of the Talmudic list.
Laws for the Gentiles who are turning to God, recited by St Peter (Acts 15:19-21) * Doctrinal *
No Fornication (Prohibition from all forms of sexual deviancy, such as adultery, bestiality, incest and homosexual sex).
Kosher Meat and the prohibition from eating and drinking blood. Not to eat anything still containing its life-blood nor to drink the blood of any animal.
Sabbath observance and the recital of Mosaic law (the Ten Commandments as confirmed by Christ) are clearly implied in Acts 15:21.
The biblical Noahide Laws were given to Gentiles with the 613 Laws given to the Jews, they were revealed by God through Moses to the children of Israel at Mount Sinai, they compliment the Ten Commandments, they demonstrate that God Almighty has rules for everyone, Jew and Gentile, circumcised and uncircumcised, because He loves us all and His divine Word through the scriptures was intended for us all.
The Seven Talmudic Noahide Laws
The later Talmudic Noahide Laws, described by the Talmud (written from the oral tradition between 3rd - 6th century AD), are unbiblical, incomplete and contradictory to Mosaic Law. They were refuted by Jesus when he was sentenced to death by crucifixion on the charge of Blasphemy (Talmudic Noahide Law # 2) by a Pharisee (Matthew 10:24-25) and contradict the doctrine laid down by Jesus in Matthew 5:17-20.
According to the Talmud the penalty for violating one of the seven Noahide Laws is death by decapitation (compare Revelation 20:4) and requires the testimony of only one witness. The Mosaic Law found in Deuteronomy 17:6, requires the testimony of two or three witnesses before one can be executed, in fact, verse six specifically states: “Whoever is deserving of death shall be put to death on the testimony of two or three witnesses; he shall not be put to death on the testimony of one witness.” The flawed Noahide Laws of the Talmud are nothing more than a counterfeit version of the Ten Commandments of Moses. This for all intents and purposes renders the Talmud an heretical text, therefore any practices of or adherence to the Talmud is strictly forbidden by the Arian Catholic Church.
Circumcision & Eating
of Clean Food
(Abraham - Genesis 17:1-27, Moses and Aaron - Exodus 12:43-13:2, Joshua 5:1-19 and the Apostles - Acts 15:1-41)
(Deuteronomy 14.3-21, Lev 11.1-47)
God made a covenant regarding circumcision with Abraham in Genesis 17 which was to be kept by all male descendents of the Israelites. The same covenant was confirmed to Moses and Aaron in Exodus 12-13 and all servants and Aliens were also to be circumcised for them to be able to partake in the Passover meal in the homes of the Israelites. In Acts 15 the Apostles debated whether gentiles should have to be circumcised to become Christians, yet clearly their questions had already been answered because in God’s original covenant with Abraham only descendents of his people, the nomadic Israelites, were to be circumcised. The Arian Catholic Church therefore upholds the Law as Jesus did, and all Christians of Jewish decent are advised to maintain the tradition of Circumcision, in addition Gentiles, though not obliged to be circumcised, optionally may be if they wish to be strict observers of the full Hebrew Passover ritual alongside Israelites or in the Holy Land, or for Clergy wishing also to be anointed as Rabbis. Modern scientific research has shown that there are medical benefits from circumcision including reduced risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections; yet there is no substitute for living with clean morals and abstaining from promiscuity. The Arian Catholic Church observes the seven Biblical Feasts of Passover, Unleavened Bread, First Fruits, Pentecost, Feast of Trumpets, Day of Atonement and the Feast of Tabernacles. Those who decide to follow the Laws of Abraham must then also refrain from eating leavened bread during the Passover and never eat unclean food such as vermin, pork or non-Piscean seafood &c (Deuteronomy 14 & Leviticus 11).
[NB: This article has been re-written by Archbishop Michael John in order to clarify the Church’s position on the High and Low Sabbaths.]
In the early Church the Sabbath was held on the Saturday along with the Jewish Christians, where the Sabbath began at sunset on the Friday evening and concluded at the following sunset on Saturday evening; however this was moved to the Sunday by the Romans to bring the Christian Sabbath in line with their Pagan day of the sun God, Sol. The Arian Church of the 4th Century resisted the changes being imposed by Rome and maintained the Sabbath on the Saturday. Judaism also held the Sabbath on a Saturday, however they regarded their holy days of obligation as the High Sabbaths.
The High Sabbaths (John 19:31) refer to the annual festivals recorded in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy. Rather than the weekly seventh day Sabbath, these days of the Festivals of Passover (Pesach), Unleavened Bread, Pentecost (Shavuot), Atonement (Yom Kippur), Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah), and Tabernacles (Sukkoth) may fall on various other days of the week. Jesus, being Jewish, observed the weekly Sabbath as well as the annual High Sabbaths, and is confirmed by numerous passages written in the New Testament. However in Acts 20:7 it indicates that the Christians at Troas met “for the breaking of bread” on Sunday, the first day of the week, and 1 Corinthians 16:1-2 says that the Christians should lay aside something on Sunday so that no collection would be needed when Paul arrived. This form of Sunday worship is not keeping the Sabbath, but a commemoration of Easter and Pentecost, both events falling on Sundays.
Why Sabbath? It was on the seventh day of creation that God rested, according to Genesis 2:2-3 (even though each day of creation may have lasted millions of years we honour this in the days of our week); the Sabbath is the last day of the week which is a Saturday. Commandment 4a tells us: “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.” Commandment 4b tells us: “Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work.” This Commandment doesn’t define the Sabbath as any particular day of the week only that it must be observed on the seventh day. However there is currently a debate that argues that a Church that holds the Sabbath on a Sunday is guilty of breaking the 4th Commandment as it advocates the loss of a Sabbath day in its history and is, according to the scriptures, at risk of damnation!
Most of the Christian world has continued to observe Sunday as the Lord’s day or incorrectly as the Sabbath day for nearly 1,700 years, although the eastern Orthodox Church still observes Saturday as the Sabbath and Sunday as the Lord’s day; many countries still regard Saturday as the seventh day of the week, and this tradition has been deeply sewn into the fabric of Society, although Hebrew and Eastern Society has maintained the original seventh day Sabbath from the outset.
Matthew 24:14-20, referred to as the “Olivet Prophecy”, describes the second coming of Yeshua. Yeshua recommends in verse 20 that everyone pray: “...that your flight be not in the winter, neither on a Sabbath”. Clearly, Jesus knew that the followers of his Church would still observe the Sabbath at the time of the second coming.
The Arian Catholic Church has looked at this logically and while Jesus Christ (Yeshua the Messiah) taught us that the traditional observance of the Sabbath was never intended to take precedence over the necessities of daily life, it is nevertheless still essential to keep the Sabbath Holy and not to make the Sabbath a normal working day.
Note in Matthew 12:1-14, Mark 2:23-28, 3:1-5 and Luke 6:1-11 are examples of work on the Sabbath where the disciples picked grain to eat because they were hungry and Jesus healed a man’s withered hand. Jesus attempted to show that the Mosaic Law was never intended to be applied so absolutely that it would take precedence over the necessities of daily life. Christ put the meaning of the Sabbath to the test by healing the man’s hand at the synagogue, certainly it was more consistent with the intention of the law to restore this man’s afflicted hand, even on the Sabbath, than to destroy his hopes for the sake of keeping human tradition.
In keeping with the old customs of the early Church, Arian Catholics regard Saturday (being the seventh day of the week) as the “Sabbath.” The Sabbath begins at sunset on the Friday evening until sunset on Saturday evening. Also in honour of the traditions of the early Church: Sunday (being the first day of the new week), known as the “Lord’s day” when God created the Heavens and the Earth (Genesis 1:1), when the risen Spirit of Yeshua revealed himself to the Apostles in the form of an Angel (Mark 16:5-11; Matthew 28:1-10; Luke 24:4-8; John 20:11-18) and God giving the Ten Commandments at mount Sinai fifty days after the Exodus (Exodus 19:23; 20:2-17; 23:16; 34:11-27; 34:22, 28; Deuteronomy 16:10) and when the risen Messiah, Yeshua, returned to pour out the Holy Spirit on to the Apostles at Pentecost (Acts chapter 2), is observed for the breaking of bread. All Holy days of Obligation and any principle Saints day that falls on a Sabbath day are also regarded as “High Sabbaths,” ordinary Sabbath days are regarded as the “Sabbath” or “Low Sabbath.” As the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church observes all the biblical feasts but not the non-biblical Jewish Festivals, these non-biblical “High Sabbaths” are not observed. Officially Saturday is the Sabbath day, however people who, due to social circumstances, are unable to observe the Sabbath fully until Sunday, can do so, however they are expected to pray for forgiveness through Penance. Please note the Sabbath day must always be kept Holy. The Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church will provide services for the High and Low Sabbaths and the Lord’s day. Please also note that Wedding ceremonies cannot be performed during the High Sabbath as this is officially the day of rest (in the case of Saturdays) and is set aside as a Holy day of special significance.
Where feast days such as St Joseph’s day (that carry a traditional amnesty feast to the season of fasting such as Lent) falls on the Sabbath it is transferred to the Lord’s day instead.
It is reasonable to say that our society needs some people to work during the Sabbath, Arian Catholic theologians assert that these Commandments pertain to work that would prevent the worship of God on the Sabbath and that could interfere with family life and personal health; i.e. there must be one day each week when the family should be together and those who work throughout the week can rest, i.e. the Sabbath day. The Arian Catholic Church acknowledges that in the modern world there are circumstances when it is necessary to work on the Sabbath, e.g. those working in essential services such as Clergy, Doctors, Nurses, Firemen and Engineers at Power Stations etc. Working on the Sabbath is still a sin, however, in such circumstances people can be forgiven provided that on the Sabbath they do still worship God, are able to spend time with their family, rest and that the Sabbath must not become a normal working day for them.
The Rosary is used in the Arian Catholic Church as a focal point and counter for many different prayers. The “Ave Maria” (which forms the first verse of the Hail Mary prayer) is used by Arianists, but as the salutation/greeting originally was and without using the added second verse of the Hail Mary payer. The second verse was invented by Alanus de Rupe (1428 - 1475) who claimed it to have been written by St Dominic (1170 - 1221) in response to the Albigensian heresy in Southern France, however there are no writings by St Dominic containing any such verse.
The second verse contains the heretical term: “Mother of God”, which is replaced with “Mother of Christ” by those who wish to recite both verses as a call for Mary’s intercession without being heretical. The Hail Mary came into use during the twelfth century, it was an adaptation of the “Ave Maria”, a greeting from the Gospel of St Luke, which was turned into a prayer by the Catholic Church and consists of two references to the divinity of Christ and addresses the mother of Christ directly (a possible violation of the first Commandment!).
That Jesus Christ was not God means the second verse of the prayer, which has no biblical origin: “Holy Mary, Mother of God ...” is incorrect. The mother of the Christ is still a revered figure in Arian Catholic eyes, however she is not a Deity, which, Arian Catholic Theologians believe, this prayer is implying that she is! We must remember that there is only one God and we are forbidden by the commandments to worship a graven image or another as a Deity. The second verse of the Hail Mary prayer therefore has a Pro-Nicaean inference with Polytheistic undertones and is not advocated by the Arian Catholic Church, however the first verse is acceptable with an optional amended second verse...
[This verse is based on Luke 1:28]
Full of Grace,
The Lord is with thee.
Blessed art thou among women,
And blessed is the fruit of thy womb Jesus.
St Dominic’s additional verse (amended)
Optional: St Dominic’s alleged additional verse [This verse is controversial as it is heretical and will be omitted from all official services. This verse was written by Alanus de Rupe (1428 - 1475) who claimed it to have been written by St Dominic (1170 - 1221) in response to the Albigensian heresy in Southern France, there are no writings by St Dominic containing such a verse. This verse has no biblical basis and therefore the following amended version is optional in calling upon St Mary's intercession but must in no way be a prayer to Mary!]
Mother of Yeshua,
Pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death.
Rosaries have been in use for thousands of years by many faiths as prayer counters and their use is recognised by the Arian Catholic Church, and are an accepted tool for prayer as both a focal point in prayer and meditation and as a prayer counter. A new rosary should be blessed by a member of the clergy, this is usually done on a key event in the Liturgical Calendar, i.e. the feast day of one of the Apostles or Easter Sunday etc. See the corresponding section on our worship page.
Semi-Arianism is an attempt to reach a compromise with the Pro-Nicaean Church by accepting that Christ was Divine but a lesser Deity than God himself. In doing so they rendered themselves “Polytheists” (belief in more than one God), which conflicted with both the Arian and the Orthodox Churches, which both believe in only one God (Monotheism)! The Arian Catholic Church therefore does not advocate Semi-Arianism.
There is no reference to the Trinity in the Bible and Jesus did not mention the trinity in his teachings, in fact the concept of the trinity was first written about by Tertullian of Carthage ((140-230 A.D.) a Roman Montanist heretic and the son of a Roman Centurion) at the end of the second century, his ideas being taken from Greek and Hindu ideologies, and was not formally adopted into Christianity until the first Council of Nicaea in 325 A.D., which was called by Pope Sylvester I and overseen by the Emperor and Pagan High Priest of Rome: Constantine I, in order to pave the way for the Romanization of Christianity against the stance on the divinity of Jesus Christ which was being made by Arius of Alexandria. The Romans were accustomed to polytheism and it was believed that the only way the incurably superstitious Pagan Romans could be converted to Christianity would be if it was integrated with Roman Paganism to create a Christo-Pagan Sect that bore parallels with traditional Roman Paganism. At the time the Orthodox Church believed it had converted its first Roman Emperor, Constantine I, to Christianity although Constantine I retained his Pagan Chief Priest title of “Pontifex Maximus” and was not baptised Christian until he was on his deathbed in 337 A.D.
In the Gospel according to John 1:1 we read that the Word (Logos) meaning Jesus Christ and the Theos were the same. “The Word with God and the Word was God,” this is correct when God uses his servant to be his Messenger and we read in Ezekiel 3:10 that God tells his servant “Son of man, receive into your heart all My words...,” the word of God spoken through the man of God is the Word being made flesh and dwelt among us and therefore in that sense the Word is with God, and the Word was God. The Roman Church misused this verse to help establish the trinity.
An analysis of the Gospel according to John does however reveal that it has been subjected to several redactions, including John 1:1-18. The term: “Word” in this context does not occur anywhere else in the Gospel and in fact the whole structure of grammar and word usage is unlike the rest of the Gospel leaving us to conclude that these verses were added by a different author at later time during one of the redactions of a transcription of a redaction of a transcription of a redaction of a transcription of a redaction of a transcription of the original autograph!
The idea of the trinity was conceived by drawing together separate references throughout the Bible that describe God differently, principally: the Old Testament - Exodus 20:2 and the New Testament - Romans 4:24, and making assumptions on their connection, which only serve to play on ambiguities between different contextual styles, and then concluding that only God is capable of salvation. Although this covers some ambiguity and the concept of the Holy Trinity would lay claim to an ineluctable communal personality of God, where Christ, God and the holy Spirit would be all parts of the same entity that save souls and can all be worshipped and glorified. As described above Arian Catholics do not accept that Jesus was God. Jesus did exist and was called the Son of God (the Hebrew word actually used was “Eved” which in old Hebrew means “Slave” or “Servant”), he was chosen by God as his representative on Earth, but he was not God, he was not co-eternal nor co-substantial with God and nor was he a lesser Deity (see Who was Jesus?). The ideology of the Trinity was forced into accepted Christian doctrine, although it is based on assumptions with the pursuit of power in mind.
The concept of the Trinity was unheard of by Christ and the Apostles let alone the early Jewish-Christians. It was something that was never written about and the whole idea goes against everything they believed in! It is clear that the early Christians were monotheistic both by instinct and by teaching. They lived in the very centre of monotheistic faith and it was logically impossible for them to regard Jesus in a way which would annihilate the absolute gulf which existed in their minds between man and God. Consequently Jesus remained essentially distinct from deity. The role which they had attributed to him was of Messiah. It had a connotation which adhered to Orthodox Judaism and conformed to the Jewish nationalistic aspirations.
Despite the fact that everything in the Universe, even the vacuum of space, is part of the same sub-nuclear fabric of the Universe, the Universe consists of three distinct states of existence, i.e. Energy, Force and Mass. Likewise there are three states of being in the Universe, i.e. God, the Spirit and the Living, which all exist as three independent entities. Each living person therefore comprises three parts: The physical Body, the Mind that performs thought, and the Soul that is the will or the driving force and which is the spiritual spectator within each of us. It is reasonable then to say that this applies to most if not all sentient animals. This logical belief compromises the Trinity, which teaches that God is the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost (also known as the Holy Spirit) as three parts of a single entity all of the same fabric. On a sub-nuclear level this is true, but then (in that case) the same is true for everything in the Universe!
The Trinity does only exist as a concept that links the three entities together, God is the Father, Jesus the Son (or Servant) and the Christ (the Anointed or Chosen one) who is not co-eternal nor co-substantial with God, and the Holy Spirit (or Holy Ghost) is the spiritual influence sent by God. NB Prior to the birth of Jesus Christ he did not exist, and nor did any reference to the Trinity! The two pictures featured above left and right show Russian Byzantine style artwork by Andrei Rublev (circa 1360 - 1430); these pictures are called “The Trinity” although they show the three Angels that appeared to Abraham in the Old Testament, a different trinity to that claimed by the Council of Nicaea in 325 A.D. See the article: The Romanisation of Catholicism.
Modern Christians are told to accept the Trinity as a tri-une God whose existence is beyond all human understanding. A commonly used Trinitarian “way-out” clause when Trinitarian apologists are unable to support their argument. However the concept of Polytheism in Christianity even in the form of a tri-une God is not Compatible with the fundamental building blocks of the faith, e.g. The First Commandment:-
“Thou shalt have no other gods before me.”
Although the bible suggests that there was a Virgin birth the Bible actually becomes ambiguous when explaining how the conception took place, and the book of Matthew is contradictory as to whether Joseph and Mary were married or not at Jesus’ conception. The Bible’s description of this event clearly shows people’s limited understanding at the time and the awe that was being experienced by the writers; we must therefore be cautious when reading references to this event. The idea of a Virgin Birth was not new however, as the idea was already familiar through the pagan myth of the Man-God Mithras. The concept of the Virgin Birth of Jesus was first introduced by the writer of Matthew who quoted the mis-translation of Isaiah 7:14 from the Greek Septuagint (see The Virgin Birth - Separating Myth from Fact). Man has discovered that the Universe is bound by Mathematical, Physical, Chemical and Biological laws, which were laid down by God in order that the Universe he created could exist and remain stable enough to enable life to occur. Bearing this in mind, Christ’s birth fulfilled a 1,000 year old prophecy, and it is not surprising therefore that people’s expectations of what Christ should be has influenced how his story has been told; the conception and birth of the Son of God would therefore have to be immaculate. However considering that God would use the same laws of the Universe that he himself created, a virgin conception and birth of a boy from a human female is not possible. If self-fertilisation had occurred, then it is possible, although still extremely unlikely, that a girl could be conceived, however a human female does not posses the Y chromosome necessary to conceive a boy. Therefore logic dictates that the conception and birth of Jesus Christ must have been natural although this still does not change the fact that Jesus Christ was chosen by God as his principle representative on Earth and his spirit sent by God as his spiritual son; the term “Son of God” was a metaphor and was honorific of someone considered worthy of the rank of one who served God as his Son. One other possibility that remains is that the genetic information necessary to conceive a Son was inseminated naturally. This is the view described in the Bible and implies that a direct intervention by God through the Holy Spirit occurred! However why intervene directly when all the tools are already directly at your disposal? The logical answer is that God worked through Mary and her husband Joseph to conceive his Son. Any family planning clinician would warn that it is possible to become pregnant through close intimate contact without sexual intercourse, as only one healthy Spermatozoa actually needs to work its way to the Ova for conception to occur! Physically, Jesus was a human man, born of Mary and Joseph; but spiritually he was the son of God as he was an archangel created and sent by God (See Who was Jesus?).
The Hebrew word “almah” rendered “virgin” in the NKJV actually means “a young woman of marriageable age”. There is no ambiguity here as Isaiah had many words at his disposal to describe this type of woman. E.g. “betula” in Hebrew means literally a Virgin having had no relations with a man (Greek: parthenos); and “na’ara” literally means a “girl”; these words are quite specific and unmistakable. However in the second century BC as Greek was the most widely spoken language in the known world, more so than even Latin, the Septuagint was written to translate the Hebrew Bible into Greek. The Greek equivalent to the Hebrew “almah” is “neanis” and refers to a “young woman”. However the writers of the Septuagint instead translated this word into the Greek: “parthenos”, which means specifically “virgin” as if the Hebrew word “betula” had been used instead!
It is possible that the story may have inadvertently drifted from the “Young Woman” to the “Virgin” interpretation in the scriptures with the ancient myth of Mithras in mind. This means that Arian Catholic Christians have a differing view of St Mary to the so-called mainstream Christian view. Arian Catholics believe that the Virgin Birth, in the literal sense, is a myth. St. Mary was pure in Soul and whether or not she was physically a virgin when Jesus was conceived is irrelevant. St. Mary, the mother of Jesus the Messiah, is still honoured by the Arian Catholic Church as a Saint whose intercession is called upon through God.
See separate article: The Virgin Birth - Separating Myth from Fact.
He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised
for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon Him; and with
His stripes we are healed.
Isaiah 53:5 - 700 B.C.
He was put to death in the flesh,
but made alive in the spirit.
1 Peter 3:18
Jesus was crucified and suffered terribly on the cross, He died and was resurrected into heaven. Records from the Romans also confirmed the event. The Arian Catholic official standpoint is that it was Jesus’ Spirit (Immanuel) that was Resurrected and as an Archangel he would have the ability to manifest himself in human form; there are several accounts were people who knew Jesus did not immediately recognise Him when he appeared after the crucifixion, i.e. John 20:14, Luke 24:16 and Matthew 28:17.
14 ... she turned around and saw Jesus standing there, and did not know that it was Jesus.
Logical Examination: There are however some points to the biblical story that don’t add up! It was customary at the time to bury a dead person as soon as possible, this was a logical tradition that would prevent the spread of disease. Was Jesus placed in the tomb with the intension of burying him later or was the tomb his final resting place? If the latter then why were Roman guards standing watch at the tomb? This was no longer a Roman matter and it does not make sense that the guards would not notice that the tomb had been opened. Furthermore if Christ was going to dematerialise and re-materialise resurrected then the tomb would not need to be opened for him to escape. There are three possible explanations for Jesus’ apparent resurrection. Firstly it is possible that when Jesus was brought down from the cross he may not have been dead, the Romans may not have checked properly before releasing his body, especially as it was reported that a Centurion had speared Jesus with a lance. However, it would often take days for someone to die on the cross. This opens up the possibility that Jesus died later while in hiding. The second possibility is that his appearance to his disciples was a vision or a non-physical manifestation of his Spirit. The third possibility is that Jesus did die on the cross and his body was taken and buried in a secret location to protect it from robbers and desecrators (especially as Jesus was hated and feared by the Orthodox Jews), then news of his resurrection would explain the disappearance of the body. The latter possibility holds the most credibility as it is a logical explanation that fits the evidence. Here is a paper by the Liberal Christians: The Resurrection, giving a well researched examination of the Resurrection and a logical interpretation of what was meant by “The Resurrection”.
42 So also is the resurrection of the dead. The body is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption.
43 It is sown in dishonour, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power.
44 It is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body.
1 Corinthians 15:42 - 44
The Apostles of Christ
Pictured right is “The Last Supper” by Leonardo de Vinci - showing Christ with the twelve Apostles (left to right): Bartholomew, James (the Less), Andrew, Judas Iscariot, Peter, John? (although some believe that this person looks like a female and could be a representation of Mary Magdalene sitting at Christ’s right hand side!), JESUS CHRIST, Thomas, James (the Great), Philip, Matthew, Thaddaeus and Simon. After the suicide of Judas Iscariot his place was taken by Matthias. Barnabas was also included as Christ’s Apostle; although Paul of Tarsus is regarded as a great Theologian (although some of his writings were difficult to understand (2 Peter 3:16)) and Father of the Church he is not recognised as an Apostle. St Nicodemus of Jerusalem is recognised as Jesus’ secret Apostle (John 3:1-22, 19:39-40) who, because he was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin (high council of the supreme Jewish authorities), was initiated by Jesus under cover of night and given the duty to spread the Gospel to the Pharisees in secret in order to not alarm the other Apostles and Pharisee Rabbis who would have been prejudiced. Note that St Joseph of Arimathea and the centurion Longinus were secret disciples. Mary Magdalene was a disciple of Jesus and has the title of Apostle to the Apostles. All the Apostles have a Sainthood and, with the exception of Judas Iscariot, each have a feast day.
Mary Magdalene (Mariamne of Magdala),
Apostle to the Apostles - Feast day: 22nd July
It is believed that Mary Magdalene, who was a disciple of Jesus, was also as much at Christ’s side as many of the other Apostles, she is commonly identified with the sinner in the book of Luke 7:37, but modern theologians now believe that this association is wrong. In Mark 16:9 after the resurrection Jesus first appeared to Mary Magdalene “out of whom He had cast seven demons.” The Arian Catholic Church acknowledges that in the time of Jesus’ life women were generally given low social status and therefore the account of Mary Magdalene’s life has been given little coverage in the bible. There is a suggestion that Mary Magdalene and Jesus had a special love for each other: in Mark 14:3-9, Matthew 26:6-13 and John 12:2-8 where Mary anoints Jesus’ head and feet, Jesus defended her actions against Judas’ protestations; in John 19:26 where Jesus on the cross saw Mary Magdalene: “the disciple whom he loved”; also in John 20:17 Mary clung to Jesus when she realised it was Him resurrected and Jesus had to explain to her that he could not stay as he had to return to their Father, their God. The church keeps an open mind as to the status of Mary Magdalene as there is much speculation that she could have been the wife of Jesus (although no biblical evidence supports this, there is emerging evidence from Ossuaries found in what is believed to be the tomb of the Messianic family and in the Pistis Sophia, the Gospel of Mary and the Gospel of Philip from the Nag Hamadi.) or that she was a woman Apostle! What is without question is that she was described by the early Church as the Apostle to the Apostles. It is significant that she was the first person that Jesus appeared to after His resurrection but further questions arise as to why He would not allow her to touch Him (John 20:17), yet Thomas was allowed to put his finger through the hole in Jesus’ hand (John 20:27); Mary was clinging to Jesus as if not to want to let go but some theologians believe that through touch the un-ascended spirit might be contaminated by the sin of a woman whom loved Him. Nevertheless Jesus gave her instructions to spread the message of His resurrection to the other Apostles and to arrange a meeting; after Judas’ suicide two days before Mary Magdalene clearly filled the position of the twelfth Apostle as she was tasked with her first Apostolic duty, which she dutifully carried out. The question now is: “Did Mary Magdalene continue to exercise her duties as an Apostle?” If she was a woman Apostle then it would give testimony to the right of women to be ordained as Priests; excerpts from the Apocryphal Book: “The Gospel of Mary” portrays Mary Magdalene as one of the Apostles after Christ’s Resurrection (unfortunately the authority of this book is contested!), there certainly appears to have been a reshuffle of “The Twelve” at this time. Her feast day is held on 22nd July. In accordance with the traditions of the early Church the modern (Arian Catholic) Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church welcomes women into the Diaconate as deaconesses and in exceptional cases will consider consecrating women to a higher office. Please refer to the section on the Ordination of Women on the Sacramental page.
The Biblical Day
The ancient biblical day commenced at sunset, i.e. the moment the sun touches the horizon, thus the day began with evening and night traditionally began once three stars became visible in the sky. These times of course had to be estimated during poor weather conditions. For the Middle East and Mediterranean region this was an efficient method of determining the change of day. Sunset is not an event that could easily go unnoticed above ground, whereas in a time when there were no watches or clocks midnight would be impossible to determine without a candle, compass and an accurate Ephemeris. It is therefore very important when reading the bible and other ancient scripture that the ancient biblical day always began with evening and night followed by morning and afternoon. Therefore a feast day will always start at sunset the day before in our modern calendar, hence the reason for Vespers and why the Sabbath always starts at sunset on Fridays and finishes at sunset on Saturdays.
The Timetable of a Liturgical Feast Day is defined as follows...
Prayer conducted at dusk on the evening before the day of the feast.
At dusk between sundown and night on the previous evening.
Prayer conducted at night, the last prayer of the day.
Night, between 21:00 - 00:00.
A vigil is conducted for special feasts such as High Sabbaths for worship, prayer, meditation, Lectio Divina (Divine Reading) and hymn conducted through the night.
00:00 - 06:00
(sometimes 00:00 - 03:00)
Prayer at the third hour.
Prayer at the sixth hour, or noon.
Prayer at the ninth hour.
Prayer at sunset.
The Biblical Calendar
The ancient biblical calendar is identical to the Hebrew calendar of these days. The Hebrew year has 12 lunar month starting with new moon. This means each month counts 29 or 30 days, which sums up to 354 days a year. To synchronise the calendar with the seasons, an additional month Adar is inserted in leap years (7 times in 19 years).
|Hebrew Month||# of days||
|1. Nissan||30||March/April||14.: Passover
(afternoon: Preparation, evening: Seder meal)
15. - 21.: Feast of unleavened bread
21.: in the morning: Presentation of the early First Fruit
|3. Sivan||30||May/June||6.: Shavu’ot|
|7. Tishri||30||September/October||1.: The
feast of trumpets (Rosh Hashana)
10.: Yom Kippur
15. - 21.: Succoth
|8. Cheshvan||30 or 29||October/November|
|9. Kislev||30 or 29||November/December||25.- 2.: Hanukkah (Festival of Lights / Rededication of the Temple)/1. Maccabees + Judith [ AN OPTIONAL FEAST]|
|12. Adar||29||February/March||14.: Purim/Esther [AN OPTIONAL FEAST]|
During the year, the entire Torah (five books of the Law) is read, a portion at a time each Sabbath. Additionally, there will be read a portion out of the Prophets. These readings are fixed and will be repeated every year.
Also on feast days, a traditional portion of the Torah and the Prophets will be read. These parts do not fit in the weekly readings of the Torah.
The Annual Festivals and Feasts
The Christian calendar has a multitude of feasts and festivals, you can find most of these in the Liturgical calendar, however the main annual events in the Arian Catholic Christian calendar are given below with the Apostle’s Feast days in blue and other principle events in bold; Holy days of Obligation are indicated with a “+”. NB:-
The Arian Catholic Sabbath is held on Saturday in keeping with the traditions of the early Church, this is called the High Sabbath (the day of rest (Genesis 2:2)) and is the seventh day of the week. In keeping with the old customs of the Church the Low Sabbath begins at sunset on the Friday evening until midnight and then continues from midnight Saturday until sunset on Sunday evening. The Sunday and the first day of the new week is also known as the Lord’s day when God created the Heavens and the Earth (Genesis 1:1).
Where feast days such as St Joseph’s day (that carry a traditional amnesty feast to the season of fasting such as Lent) falls on a High Sabbath (i.e. a Saturday) it is transferred to the Low Sabbath (i.e. the following Sunday) instead.
dates are according to the Gregorian calendar unless otherwise stated...
Event Date Epiphany - Solemnity
Celebrated as the Nativity of Christ by the early Church, the anniversary of Christ’s Baptism and the coming of the Magi (three Kings)
6th January The Blessing of the Holy Water in the Early Church Sabbath (Saturday) on or after Epiphany. Orthodox Christmas Day*** (actually the original Roman Christmas according to the Julian Calendar thus maintaining the same Astronomical date). [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] 7th January (Gregorian) = 25th December (Julian)*** Confession of St Peter - Feast 18th January St Agnes of Rome, Virgin and Martyr - Memorial 21st January Conversion of St Paul the Apostle [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] 25th January Candlemass (Imbolc) [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] / Presentation of Christ - Feast 2nd February Purim/Esther
One of the later Jewish festivals. Purim commemorates the deliverance of the Persian Jews from destruction in the reign of the Persian king Ahasuerus, or Xerxes I, as recorded in the Book of Esther.
[ AN OPTIONAL FEAST]
14th Adar I (around February time) The Chair of St Peter the Apostle at Antioch - Feast 22nd February Septuagesima Sabbath* Third Sabbath before Lent* Sexagesima Sabbath* Second Sabbath before Lent* Quinquagesima Sabbath* Next Sabbath before Lent* Shrove Tuesday (precedes Ash Wednesday)* Between 3rd February - 9th March* Ash Wednesday (the first day of Lent)* Between 4th February - 10th March* Lent (beginning with Ash Wednesday)* 46 day period before the end of Passover (or Easter Sunday* in Roman and Eastern traditions). Laetare Sabbath* The 4th or middle Sabbath of Lent. St Matthias the Apostle - Feast 24th February (Western Tradition), (since 1969 RC: 14th May; 9th August (Eastern Tradition)) St David’s Day (Patron of Wales) 1st March St Patrick’s Day / St Joseph of Arimathea - Feast 17th March St Joseph, husband of Mary, biological father of Jesus 19th March Vernal Equinox [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] 20th/21st/22nd March** Palm Sunday*
Marks the early fulfilment of Daniel’s prophecy of the seventy sets of seven and of Zechariah when Jesus rode into Jerusalem on the foal of a donkey as Messiah and King of the Jews before his Passion.
Sunday before Passover in the Arian Catholic Tradition, and occurs on the Sunday before Easter* in the Roman and Eastern traditions. Easter Week (also known as Holy Week)
The word “Easter” goes back to a pagan Teutonic/ Germanic/ Anglo-Saxon godhead “Eostera”. Behind this is the Babylonian goddess “Ishtar”.
[NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST]
This is a movable feast, the dating of which was decided by the Roman Emperor: Constantine I to coincide with the traditional Pagan feasts around the Vernal Equinox, see below*. Good Friday* [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] Friday of Easter Week Holy Saturday* (Traditional Roman Blessing of the Holy Water) [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] Saturday of Easter Week Easter Sunday* [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] Between 22nd March and 25th April (see below*) Passover (Pesach / Pascha) (1 day)* ۩
(Jesus was our Passover Lamb)
One of the seven biblical feasts.
[Exodus 12:3 - 13:10, Leviticus 23:5, Numbers 28:16-25, Joshua 3:5-7 & 5:2 - 6:1 & 27, Matthew 26:2 & 17-20 and I Corinthians 5:7]
The feast of Passover speaks of redemption; Christ the Passover Lamb was slain at Calvary for the sins of the world.
This feast is obligatory for both Messianic Jews and Gentiles in the Arian Catholic Church.
Passover falls on the evening (after sunset) of the Full Moon after the Vernal Equinox (According to the fixed Hebrew calendar is the 14th day of Nisan (the first month of the year)), during the day the Passover meal (or Seder meal, including Lamb, but since Jesus’ Crucifixion there is no need for a sacrifice!) is prepared and then eaten that evening after sunset (technically then the night of Nisan 15th as night precedes day in the Biblical day).
Start (sunrise): 2nd April 2007 | 19th April 2008
End (the night after sunset): 2nd April 2007 | 19th April 2008
Festival of Unleavened Bread (Chag Hamotzi/Hag HaMatzah)* ۩ (7 days)
(Jesus was our sinless Messiah)
One of the seven biblical feasts.
[Deuteronomy 16:8, Leviticus 23:6-8, Numbers 28:17 & 33:3, I Corinthians 5:6-8; each day Psalm 113 - 118 are recited during the Hallel (praise)]
The feast of Unleavened Bread speaks of sanctification. Jesus was set apart, his spirit the Angel of Great Counsel (LXX Isaiah 9:6). Marks Holy Week in the Arian Catholic Calendar (culminating in the traditional Easter according to the Christo-Pagan churches) to mark the time when Christ was arrested, suffered the passion, was crucified and buried (equivalent to Good Friday) following the Passover Feast (Seder Meal / Last Supper (the events that followed after sunset on Maundy Thursday)).
This feast is obligatory for both Messianic Jews and Gentiles in the Arian Catholic Church.
The feast of Unleavened Bread continues from 15th day of Nisan lasting for seven days (until 21 Nisan); including the Presentation of the Early First Fruits (Yom HaBikkurim) on the first Sunday after Nisan 15th.
Start (sunset): 2nd April 2007 | 19th April 2008
End (sunset): 10th April 2007 | 27th April 2008
First Fruits* ۩
One of the seven biblical feasts.
Early First Fruits (Yom HaBikkurim) (1 day)
Later First Fruits/Counting of the Omer (Lag B’Omer) (2 days)
(Jesus’ spirit was the first to be raised from the dead)
[Exodus 22:29, Leviticus 23:10-11, I Corinthians 15:20-23 and Luke 24:7]
The feast of First Fruits speaks of the Lord’s triumphant resurrection; death simply could not hold her foe. On the third day, Jesus’ spirit rose victoriously from the grave.
Early First Fruits
Falls on the first Sunday after Nisan 15th (on the the morrow after the Sabbath during Hag HaMatzah), see above.
Later First Fruits
Falls on Iyar 18 - 19th
(sunset): 5th May 2007 | 22nd May 2008.
End (sunset): 7th May 2007 | 24th May 2008
Feast of the Body & Blood of Christ (Corpus Christi) = Passover (Arian Catholic)* ۩
RC: Maundy Thursday [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST]
Thursday of Easter Week according to the traditions of the Roman and Eastern churches; trinitarian churches re-assigned Corpus Christi to the Thursday after trinity which is not recognised in the Arian Catholic Liturgical Calendar.
Feast of Annunciation of Jesus to Mary (Lady Day) 6th April (Arian Catholic Rite)
(25th March - Roman Tradition)
St George’s Day (Patron of England and of Soldiers) 23rd April St Mark the Apostle - Feast 25th April Beltane [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] / St James (the Less) and St Philip the Apostles - Feast 1st May St Pancras the Martyr 12th May Birth of Jesus Christ (Yeshua the Messiah) according to St Clement of Alexandria c150-217 A.D.)*** [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] 20th May (25th Pachon)*** St Dionysius, Arian bishop of Milan (d. 355) 25th May Ascension Day* Thursday 40 Days after Early First Fruits (or Easter in the Roman and Eastern traditions (May/June)*) Pentecost (Whit) (Shavu’ot / Feast of Weeks)* ۩
(The Holy Spirit descended)
One of the seven biblical feasts.
[Leviticus 23:10-14, 15-16 & 17-22, Deuteronomy 16:9, 10-12 & 16, Exodus 19:1 - 20:23 & 34:33, Ezekiel 1:1-28 and 3:12, Acts 2:1-4 and I Corinthians 15:20-23]
The feast of Pentecost speaks of origination. It symbolizes Jesus giving us the gift of the Holy Spirit which inaugurated the New Covenant and Church Age.
This is one of the prominent feasts in the Christian liturgical year, celebrated the fiftieth day after Easter Sunday (the tenth day after Ascension Thursday). Historically and symbolically related to the Jewish harvest festival of Shavuot: it marks the conclusion of the Counting of the Omer and the day the Torah was given to the Jewish people at Mount Sinai. It is one of the shalosh regalim, the three Biblical pilgrimage festivals mandated by the Torah. It also commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus as described in the Book of Acts, Chapter 2. Pentecost is also called Whitsun or Whit Sunday.
This feast is obligatory for both Messianic Jews and Gentiles in the Arian Catholic Church.
Seventh Sunday (& 50 days) after the end of Passover (or Easter in the Roman and Eastern traditions (May/June)*)
In the Hebrew calendar Shavu’ot falls on the 6th day of the Hebrew month of Sivan, however since the Torah does not specify the actual day on which Shavuot falls, differing interpretations of this date have arisen both in traditional and non-traditional Jewish circles.
Start (sunset): 21st May 2007 | 8th June 2008.
End (sunset): 23rd May 2007 | 10th June 2008.
The Visitation of Mary to Elizabeth - Feast 31st May The most Holy Body and Blood of Christ (Corpus Christi) - Solemnity Second Sabbath after Pentecost The most Sacred Heart of Jesus - Solemnity Friday following the Second Sabbath after Pentecost St Columba, Abbott, “the Apostle of Caledonia” 9th June St Barnabas the Apostle - Feast 11th June St Arius of Alexandria, Priest and Martyr - Feast 16th June
Nativity of the Messiah***
Marked by the time of the Star of Bethlehem in 2BC when the Magi recognised the conjunction of Jupiter, Venus and Regulus in the constellation of Leo (Matthew 2:1-12 and Genesis 1:14).
Evening of 17th June Summer Solstice [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] 20th/21st/22nd June** St John the Baptist - Feast 24th June St Peter and St Paul the Apostles - Feast 29th June St Thomas the Apostle - Feast 3rd July (Traditional), (Anglican Tradition: 21st December) St Benedict, Abbot - Feast 11th July St Mary Magdalene (Mariamne of Magdala) - Feast
St Felix II, Arian Patriarch of Rome, Martyr (St Felix II (355-365) was anciently considered a legitimate Patriarch of Rome and was canonised, but was labelled an antipope in the fifth century. Given that Felix V (1440-1449), himself an antipope, did not style himself Felix IV, he evidently considered Felix II legitimate.) - Memorial
22nd July St James (the Great) the Apostle - Feast
St Christopher, Martyr, Patron of Travellers - Feast
25th July St Anne (Mother of Mary, Grandmother of Christ) - Feast 26th July Lammas (Traditional Harvest Festival) [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST]
The Feast of St Peter's Chains
1st August St Nicodemus of Jerusalem, Secret Apostle & Martyr - Memorial 3rd August Transfiguration of Christ 6th August St Dominic, Abbott - Feast (Optional) 8th August St Hippolytus of Rome, Patriarch of Rome (Antipope) & Martyr - Feast 13th August St Joachim (Father of Mary, Grandfather of Christ) - Feast 16th August St Bartholomew the Apostle - Feast 24th August St Augustine - Feast (Optional) 28th August Beheading of St John the Baptist, martyr - Memorial 29th August Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah)* ۩
(“The Blowing of the Shofar” will announce Jesus’ return)
One of the seven biblical feasts.
[Genesis 21, Leviticus 23:24-25, Numbers 29:1-6 & I Samuel 1:1 - 2:10]
The Feast of Trumpets depicts the Rapture of the Church and the judgment of the wicked.
The Feast of Trumpets is specifically and biblically the first day of the month of Tishri. Leviticus 23:24 states, “Speak to the children of Israel, saying: ‘In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall have a sabbath-rest, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, a holy convocation’” (NKJV). It is the only Hebrew feast to occur on a new moon.
The second day of the Hebrew Rosh Hashanah is a later addition and does not follow from the literal reading of the Biblical commandment, which states that the holiday should be celebrated on the first day.
This feast is obligatory for both Messianic Jews and Gentiles in the Arian Catholic Church.
Begins on 1st day of Tishrei, lasting 1 day.
Start (sunset): 11th September 2007 | 28th September 2008.
End (sunset): 13th September 2007 | 30th September 2008.
Birth of the Blessed Mary Mother of Christ - Feast 8th September Triumph of the Holy Cross (X) (Optional) / Holy Chi-Rho 14th September Autumnal Equinox (Lughnasadh) [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] 20th/21st/22nd September** St Matthew the Apostle - Feast 21st September Michaelmas (Feast of Sts Michael, Gabriel and Raphael the Archangels) 29th September Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)* ۩
[Leviticus 16, 23:26, 27-36, Numbers 29:7-11, Isaiah 57:14 - 58:14, Hebrews 7 - 10 (esp. 9:7) and Acts 27:9]
The Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) points to a great host of people, Jews and Gentiles, who will be saved when the Angel of Great Counsel, Immanuel, returns to earth.
This feast is obligatory for both Messianic Jews and Gentiles in the Arian Catholic Church.
Begins on 10th day of Tishrei, lasting 1 day.
Start (sunset): 20th September 2007 | 7th October 2008.
End (sunset): 22nd September 2007 | 9th October 2008.
The Feast of the Tabernacles (Sukkot)* ۩
(The Kingdom Banquet)
The biblical Harvest Festival, one of the seven biblical feasts.
[Exodus 12:31-51, Deuteronomy 14:22-26, 33:1 - 34:12, Leviticus 23:33-38, 39-43, Numbers 29:12-16, II Chronicles 8:13, Ezra 3:4, Zechariah 14:16-19, Nehemiah 8.13-18, John 7.2, 7:10-26 and Acts 18:21; On each day, Psalm 113 - 118 are being recited during the Hallel (Praise).]
Tabernacles speaks of the day when the Son of God will tabernacle (dwell) among men, wipe away every tear, and bring in the “golden age” which men have dreamed of since time immemorial.
Christian observers point out that Jesus kept the Feast of Tabernacles. The issue of how non Jewish Christians related to Jewish Christians was a very serious issue in the early church. Jesus and all his first followers were Jewish. However, from the Biblical and extra-biblical evidence, only a short time elapsed before non-Jewish people became convinced that Jesus was the Jewish Messiah. For Gentiles coming to a Jewish messiah, the issue of what was essential for them to adopt and what was a legitimate but optional Jewish custom amongst the Jewish followers of Jesus Christ came to the fore. It is significant that the Jewish Apostle Paul himself kept the Feast of Tabernacles as did Gentile Christians such as the Galatians.
This feast is obligatory for both Messianic Jews and Gentiles in the Arian Catholic Church.
Begins on 15th day of Tishrei, lasting 6/7 days, ending on the 22nd day of Tishrei (21st day of Tishrei in Biblical Israel).
Start (sunset): 25th September 2007 | 12th October 2008.
End (sunset): 3rd October 2007 | 20th October 2008.
The Holy Guardian Angels - Feast 2nd October St Francis of Assisi, Abbott, Founder of the Franciscans - Memorial (Optional) 4th October Blessed Mary of the Holy Rosary - Memorial 7th October St Edward, Confessor and King - Memorial 13th October St Lucian of Antioch, Presbyter and Martyr - Memorial 15th October (Roman Tradition: 7th January) St Luke the Apostle - Feast 18th October St James the Just - Feast
(one of the “other apostles” and “brother of Jesus”)
25th October St Simon (Zelotes) and St Jude (Thaddaeus) the Apostles - Feast 28th October All Hallows Eve (Samhuinn) [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] 31st October All Saints’ Day - Solemnity 1st November Commemoration of All Souls - Solemnity 2nd November All Saints of the Arianist Order of St Benedict - Feast 13th November Commemoration of all the Deceased of the Arianist Order of St Benedict 14th November St Andrew’s Day (St Andrew the Apostle, Patron of Scotland - X - Feast) 30th November Advent [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] 1st - 25th December (in Roman tradition). Festival of Lights ( Hanukkah / Rededication of the Temple)
1. Maccabees + Judith
One of the later Jewish festivals. Commemorates the rededication of the Temple of Jerusalem by Judas Maccabeus in 165 BC after the Temple had been profaned by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, King of Syria and overlord of Palestine.
Traditionally celebrated among early Christians with an Adam and Eve tree, an evergreen tree adorned with apples and lamps/candles (we now use safer electric lights).
[ AN OPTIONAL FEAST]
25th Kislev (Usually December time), traditionally lasting for 8 days. St Clement of Alexandria, Teacher, Writer & Confessor of the Faith - Memorial 4th December Yule-Tide (Winter Solstice) [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] 20th/21st/22nd December** Gaudete Sabbath 3rd Sabbath of Advent St Thomas the Apostle (Alternative feast day) 21st December (Anglican Tradition), (Catholic: 3rd July) Christmas Eve [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] 24th December Roman Christmas Day*** (applying the same date from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar) [NOT AN OBSERVABLE FEAST] 25th December (Gregorian Calendar)*** St Stephen’s Day (Boxing day) - First Martyr - Feast 26th December St John the Apostle 27th December Holy Innocents - Martyrs 28th December Holy Family of Jesus, Mary and Joseph [AN OPTIONAL FEAST] Sabbath in the Octave of Christmas or 30th December if Christmas falls on the High Sabbath
۩ High Sabbaths: These days and feasts are obligatory for ALL and are based directly on the Torah.
Holy Days of Obligation: These days and feasts are obligatory for ALL and are based directly on important events in the Gospels relating to a point of Doctrine or one of the Seven Holy Sacraments.
*Movable Liturgical Days: In A.D. 325, Emperor Constantine I ruled that Easter (associated with the full moon after the vernal equinox) should replace the biblical Passover which was variously celebrated on different days of the week, including Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. In that year, the Council of Nicaea was convened by emperor Constantine. It issued the Easter Rule which states that Easter shall be celebrated on the first Sunday that occurs after the first full moon on or after the vernal equinox. However, a caveat must be introduced here. The “full moon” in the rule is the ecclesiastical full moon, which is defined as the fourteenth day of a tabular lunation, where day one corresponds to the ecclesiastical New Moon. It does not always occur on the same date as the astronomical full moon. The ecclesiastical “vernal equinox” is always on 21st March. Therefore, Easter must be celebrated on a Sunday between the dates of 22nd March and 25th April. Whit Sunday and Monday are a celebration of Pentecost, which in Greek, means the fiftieth day. Pentecost takes place 50 days after Easter. Whit Sunday and Monday have been celebrated since the 3rd Century AD. Many modern scholars believe that these traditions and celebrations were borrowed from pagan celebrations of the Spring. Whit Sunday and Monday, or Pentecost celebrates the descent of the Holy Ghost, as documented in the Book of Acts (2:1 -11). The Eastern Orthodox church differs from the Roman church in that it calculates Easter according to the Julian calendar. The Arian Catholic Church maintains the biblical Passover feast.
Link between Passover and Easter: The Arian Catholic Church however maintains the ancient tradition of treating Easter as an aspect of the Passover feast, i.e. the last supper. The Holy Week of Easter coincides with Passover as closely as possible but maintains Good Friday, Holy Saturday and Easter Sunday, where Good Friday follows the first night of Passover (Seder Meal).
Passover: Falls on the evening (after sunset) of the Full Moon after the Vernal Equinox (According to the fixed Hebrew calendar is the 15th day of Nisan (the first month of the year)), lasting for seven days within biblical Israel (until 21 Nisan) or eight days outside biblical Israel (until 22 Nisan).
**Solstices and Equinoxes: Please check the calendar to see on which days these events fall as they can “wobble” over the years.
***Christmas: The Gregorian calendar was introduced by RC Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 (but not adopted in Britain until 1752). The Gregorian calendar is in use by most of the Christian world today; the Julian calendar lags behind the Gregorian calendar by 13 days (see Calendar Converter <www.fourmilab.ch/documents/calendar>). The Eastern Orthodox Church has maintained the “Astronomical” date of Christmas where the Julian 25th December became the Gregorian 7th January; meanwhile the Roman Catholic church kept the literal date of 25th December for Christmas, thus changing the time of the year when Christmas is celebrated. The 25th December was chosen by Constantine, Emperor of Rome, in the early fourth century as it coincided with the Roman festival of the Sun God “Sol” (and with the pagan festival of “Yule” at the same time), on the Winter Solstice, believed to be on the 25th December at the time. About 200 A.D. St Clement of Alexandria said that Egyptian Theologians placed the date of Christ’s birth as: “25 Pachon in the twenty-eighth year of Augustus”; being 20th May 4 B.C. They also celebrated the Epiphany on “11 Tybi”, being the 6th January, and probably celebrated the Nativity at the same time.
The Arian Catholic church observes the principal feast of the Nativity on the evening of 17th June, which is the date in 2 BC on which the Star of Bethlehem (a very rare conjunction of Jupiter, Venus and Regulus in the constellation of Leo) reached apogee, this marks the true date of the Nativity according to the recognition by the Magi of the signs (Genesis 1:14). This fits in with the biblical account and the astronomical data. We believe that the Magi left us a significant clue to working out the true date of the nativity through the biblical account of the Magi (the Wise Men, Matthew 2:1-12).
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© 2005-6 Rev. Dr. B.B.M.J. Mackenzie-Hanson, B.A. (Hons), D.D., a.c.O.S.B.